Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Parents toward (Infant & Child) Oral Health in Family Medicine Center at PSMMC, Riyadh

Maryam Alanazi*, Wed Alanazi, Hanan Alali, Fatma Alnoaimi, Arwa Shuwaykan and Nuha Al-Yahya

Published: 08 August, 2023 | Volume 8 - Issue 2 | Pages: 016-023

Background: Early childhood caries may develop as soon as teeth erupt. Promoting oral health care programs is very important and helps to reduce dental caries in young children. The aim of this study was to assess the infant/child oral health (IOH) related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of parents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 327 parents. Visiting the family medicine center at prince sultan military medical city, Riyadh Saudi Arabia. A 39-item questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics and questions pertaining to KAP regarding OH care will be used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics, Student’s t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Scheffe’s test will use for the statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05). 
Results: The result showed that the majority of the parents had good knowledge regarding OH, knowledge of cleaning (92.4.%), and knowledge of the amount of sugar (88.1.%). the parent’s age group (30 to 39) years (n =147) reported the highest mean (knowledge, attitudes, and practice) scores among all other age groups with a knowledge mean score of (6.80 ± 1.73), an attitude mean score of (8.86 ± 1.37), and a practice mean score of (5.14 ± 1.86).  Female parents showed significantly higher mean knowledge, attitude, and practice scores than male parents. In addition, the middle-income level parents’ group (n = 295) reported higher knowledge mean score compared to the low-income parents’ group (n = 15) with a mean difference of d = 1.15, p = .041.  
Conclusion: Parents’ knowledge about maintaining oral and dental health care for infants/children was inadequate. Essentially, medical professionals are the initial ones to interact with expecting and new moms. Therefore, need to raise parents’ awareness about oral and dental health for infants/children, through the development and implementation of long-term education and promotions programs.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.johcs.1001044 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


Attitude; Knowledge; Oral health; Parents; Practice


  1. Committee on Nutrition. American Academy of Pediatrics: The use and misuse of fruit juice in pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2001 May;107(5):1210-3. doi: 10.1542/peds.107.5.1210. PMID: 11331711.
  2. American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. Fluoride toothpaste use for young children. J Am Dent Assoc. 2014 Feb;145(2):190-1. doi: 10.14219/jada.2013.47. Erratum in: J Am Dent Assoc. 2014 Mar;145(3):236. PMID: 24487611.
  3. Aldhaher ZA. Mutans Streptococci Count and Salivary Histatin 5 Level concerning Early Childhood Caries. Medico-Legal Update. 2021; 21(2).
  4. Burgette JM, Chi DL. Behavioral and Social Determinants of Oral Health in Children With Special Health Care Needs. Pediatrics. 2021 Aug;148(2):e2021050886. doi: 10.1542/peds.2021-050886. Epub 2021 Jul 21. PMID: 34290132.
  5. Cunha RF, Pugliesi DM, Garcia LD, Murata SS. Systemic and local teething disturbances: prevalence in a clinic for infants. J Dent Child (Chic). 2004 Jan-Apr;71(1):24-6. PMID: 15272651.
  6. Dagon N, Ratson T, Peretz B, Blumer S. Maternal Knowledge of Oral Health of Children Aged 1-4 Years. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2019;43(2):116-120. doi: 10.17796/1053-4625-43.2.8. Epub 2019 Feb 7. PMID: 30730803.
  7. Dahlan R, Bohlouli B, Salami B, Saltaji H, Amin M. Parental acculturation and oral health of children among immigrants. J Public Health Dent. 2022 Sep;82(4):426-436. doi: 10.1111/jphd.12481. Epub 2021 Oct 21. PMID: 34672365.
  8. Hancock S, Schofield G, Zinn C. Healthy Food, Healthy Teeth: A Formative Study to Assess Knowledge of Foods for Oral Health in Children and Adults. Nutrients. 2022 Jul 21;14(14):2984. doi: 10.3390/nu14142984. PMID: 35889941; PMCID: PMC9319718.
  9. Ramos-Gomez FJ. A model for community-based pediatric oral heath: implementation of an infant oral care program. Int J Dent. 2014;2014:156821. doi: 10.1155/2014/156821. Epub 2014 Jan 23. PMID: 24587803; PMCID: PMC3920860.
  10. Wahyuni F, Rustina Y, Efendi D. Oral care prevents late-onset sepsis in risk. preterm infants. 2020.
  11. Madhavan S, Mathew MG. Assessment of the knowledge, attitude, and awareness among dental students about the prevention of dental caries in pediatric patients. Drug Invention Today. 2019; 11(8).
  12. Ramos-Gomez FJ, Crall J, Gansky SA, Slayton RL, Featherstone JD. Caries risk assessment appropriate for the age 1 visit (infants and toddlers). J Calif Dent Assoc. 2007 Oct;35(10):687-702. PMID: 18044377.
  13. Shajahan T, Harshitha K, Bhat SS, Hegde KS, Bhat VS. Poster 19: Infant Oral Care-An Eyeopener For Nurses. Dental Poster Journal. 2020; 9(2): 1-3.
  14. Dhull KS, Indira MD, Dhull RS, Sawhney B. Infant oral health care: An invaluable clinical intervention. Indian Journal of Dental Sciences. 2016; 8(3): 183.
  15. Kadali LM, Mopagar V, Shetty S, Shetty S, Chaudhari VKS. Infant Oral Health Care Concerning Education of Mothers--Part 2. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2021; 10(31): 2538-2543.
  16. Yildiz A, Arikan D. The effects of giving pacifiers to premature infants and making them listen to lullabies on their transition period for total oral feeding and sucking success. J Clin Nurs. 2012 Mar;21(5-6):644-56. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03634.x. Epub 2011 Jun 13. PMID: 21668549.
  17. Söderling E, Pienihäkkinen K. Effects of xylitol and erythritol consumption on mutans streptococci and the oral microbiota: a systematic review. Acta Odontol Scand. 2020 Nov;78(8):599-608. doi: 10.1080/00016357.2020.1788721. Epub 2020 Jul 7. PMID: 32633595.
  18. Shah SS, Dave BH. The Co-relation of Salivary Streptococcus Mutans' Count between Mothers and their Neonates within Two Days of Life: An Ex Vivo Microbial Study. Journal of Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health. 2022; 6(1): 104-114.
  19. Indira MD, Dhull KS, Nandlal B. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice toward Infant Oral Healthcare among the Pediatricians of Mysore: A Questionnaire Survey. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2015 Sep-Dec;8(3):211-4. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1315. Epub 2015 Sep 11. PMID: 26604540; PMCID: PMC4647042.
  20. Douglass JM, Li Y, Tinanoff N. Association of mutans streptococci between caregivers and their children. Pediatr Dent. 2008 Sep-Oct;30(5):375-87. PMID: 18942596.
  21. Davey AL, Rogers AH. Multiple types of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans in the human mouth and their intra-family transmission. Arch Oral Biol. 1984;29(6):453-60. doi: 10.1016/0003-9969(84)90026-8. PMID: 6589988.
  22. Feldens CA, Faraco IM, Ottoni AB, Feldens EG, Vítolo MR. Teething symptoms in the first year of life and associated factors: a cohort study. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2010 Spring;34(3):201-6. PMID: 20578655.
  23. Milgrom PM, Huebner CE, Ly KA. Fluoridated toothpaste and the prevention of early childhood caries: a failure to meet the needs of our young. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009 Jun;140(6):628, 630-1. doi: 10.14219/jada.archive.2009.0235. PMID: 19491152; PMCID: PMC2746689.
  24. Tinanoff N, Kanellis MJ, Vargas CM. Current understanding of the epidemiology mechanisms, and prevention of dental caries in preschool children. Pediatr Dent. 2002 Nov-Dec;24(6):543-51. PMID: 12528947.
  25. van Loveren C, Buijs JF, ten Cate JM. Similarity of bacteriocin activity profiles of mutans streptococci within the family when the children acquire the strains after the age of 5. Caries Res. 2000 Nov-Dec;34(6):481-5. doi: 10.1159/000016627. PMID: 11093022.
  26. Wake M, Hesketh K, Allen M. Parent beliefs about infant teething: a survey of Australian parents. J Paediatr Child Health. 1999 Oct;35(5):446-9. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1754.1999.355395.x. PMID: 10571756.


Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 1

Figure 3

Figure 1

Figure 4

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More

Help ?